六书 Six Scriptures

1. a) 象形字 (Pictograms) 
     b)  Simplified pictures of what they are representing 
     c) 日 (looks like sun)
         月
(looks like moon)
         木 (looks like tree)
         山 (looks like mountain)
         (looks like person)

2. a)指事字 (Ideograms) 
     b) Either modify existing pictograms iconically or are direct iconic illustration
     c) 上
(up)
          下 (down)
          刃 (blade)
          一 (one)
          小 (small)

3. a) 会意字 (Ideogrammic Compounds)  
     b) Symbollically combine existing ideograms or pictograms to create a third character
     c)   林 ("grove" is 木 doubled)
            ("forest" is 木 tripled)
           ("bright" is combination of 日 and 月)
           休 ("rest" is composed of 人and 木)
           
("good" is combination of 女 "woman" and "son")

4. a)形声字 (Phono-semantic Compounds) 
     b) Composed of two parts - the radical, which suggest the general meaning of the character, and an existing character that has a similar pronunciation to the final character
     c) All examples have 水 radical, so they have something to do with water: 
          河 ("river", he2 sounds like ke3)
         
("lake", hu2 is same as hu2)
          ("stream",  liu2 sound)
          ("riptide", chong1 sounds like zhong1)
          溜 ("glide, slide", liu1 sounds like liu2)

5. a) 转注字(Transformed Cognates)
     b) Originally didn't represent the same meaning but have bifurcated through orthographic and often semantic drift
     c) 考
 and 老
         颠 and 顶
         窍 and 空

6. a) 假借字 (Phonetic Loan Characters)
     b) Existing character is used to represent an unrelated character with similar pronunciation
     c) 自 "self"
          我  "I"
          吾 "I"
          汝 "you"
          乃  "you"